Gilles Deleuze

French renowned philosopher known for co-writing Capitalism and Schizophrenia: Anti-Oedipus (1972).

Guy Debord

French Marxist theorist, philosopher, filmmaker, & founder of a Letterist faction & the Situationist International.

Friedrich Engels

German philosopher & historian who co-wrote The Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx.

Baruch Spinoza

Dutch philosopher born in 1632 known for his book, the Ethics, which opposed mind-body dualism.

Marsilio Ficino

Italian scholar, Catholic priest, astrologer, & influential humanist philosopher of the early Italian Renaissance.

Roland Barthes

French literary theorist, essayist, philosopher, critic, & semiotician born in 1915.


Dutch philosopher & Christian scholar born in 1469. Considered a great scholar of the northern Renaissance.

Augustine de Hippo

Theologian, philosopher, & writer who influenced the development of Western philosophy & Christianity.

Michel Foucault

French philosopher, historian, & theorist known for Discipline & Punish and The History of Sexuality.

Friedrich Nietzsche

German philosopher, essayist, & cultural critic who widely influenced Western philosophy.