François Broussais

French physician born in 1772. Passionate advocate of using leeches for bloodletting.

Christiaan Barnard

South African surgeon born in 1922. Performed the world’s first heart transplant.

Armand Trousseau

French internist born in 1801. Instrumental in new treatments for croup, goiter, & malaria, among others.

Jacques-Joseph Grancher

French pediatrician born in 1843 & known for his research and prevention of childhood tuberculosis.

Jean Dausset

French immunologist born in 1916. Received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1980.

John Boyd Orr

Scottish teacher, doctor, scientist, politician, businessman, & farmer born in 1880. Won Nobel Peace Prize.

Paul Reclus

French physician & surgeon born in 1847. Known for his research of local anesthetics, particularly cocaine.

A. J. Cronin

Scottish physician & novelist born in 1896. His novel, The Citadel, inspired the National Health Service.

Paul Broca

French physician, anatomist, & anthropologist born in 1824. Known for brain research on Broca’s area.

James Young Simpson

Scottish obstetrician born in 1811. Helped introduce & popularize the use of chloroform in medical settings.