Désiré-Joseph Mercier

Belgian Catholic cardinal, noted Thomist scholar, & resister of German occupation, born in 1851.

Cesare Borgia

Italian cardinal and mercenary leader born in 1475. Inspiration for Machiavelli’s The Prince.

Clemens von Galen

German count, Bishop of Münster, & Catholic cardinal born 1878. Led Catholic protests against the Nazis.

Cardinal Mazarin

Italian cardinal, diplomat, & politician born in 1602. Chief minister for French kings Louis XIII & Louis XIV.

Elia Dalla Costa

Italian Roman Catholic prelate & cardinal. Served as Archbishop of Florence from 1931-1961.

Paul Richaud

French Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church & Archbishop of Bordeaux, born in 1887.